Exercise Vigorously for 4 Seconds. Repeat. Your Muscles May Thank You.

Similarly, a broader, longer-term study involving out-of-shape, older adults showed that regular, four-second interval workouts, during which volunteers repeated the tiny but intense intervals on the bikes at least 15 times per session, significantly raised their aerobic fitness and leg muscle mass after eight weeks.

But whether four-second interval workouts meaningfully would improve fitness and muscular power in people who started off in good shape was not yet clear. So, for the new study, which was published in July in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Dr. Coyle and his colleagues persuaded 11 healthy, active young men and women

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